The Internet sometimes referred to as a “network”, is a universal system of computer networks – a network of networks through which users on a computer can obtain information when given permission (and sometimes speaking directly to users on the Internet). Other computers). It was designed in 1969 by the US government’s Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) and was first known as ARPANet. The original goal was to create a network in which users of a research computer at one university could “talk” to research computers at another university. A side effect of the ARPANet design is that the network can continue to function because messages can be routed or forwarded in more than one direction, even if parts of them are destroyed in the event of a military attack or another disaster.

Today the Internet is a public, collaborative, and self-sufficient entity accessible to hundreds of millions of people around the world.

How does the internetwork?

The Internet physically uses a portion of all existing public telecommunications network resources. Technically speaking, what makes the Internet different is the use of several protocols called Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol (TCP / IP). Two recent changes to Internet technology, the intranet, and the extranet, also use the TCP / IP protocol.

The Internet has two main components: network protocols and devices. Protocols like the TCP / IP suite contain sets of rules that devices must follow to perform tasks.

Protocols are also responsible for translating the alphabetical text of the message into electronic signals that can be sent over the Internet and then returning to the readable alphabetical text.

These different types of devices are connections within a network. Devices such as computers, smartphones, and laptops are endpoints or clients, while the devices on which information is stored are servers.

The process of transferring information from one device to another depends on the packet switch. Every computer connected to the Internet is assigned a unique IP address that can be used to identify the device. When one device tries to send a message to another, the data is sent over the Internet in the form of manageable packets. Each packet that connects it to its endpoint is assigned a port number.

A packet with a unique IP address and port number can be translated from alphabetical text into electronic signals by traversing the layers of the OSI model from the upper application layer to the lower physical layer. The message will then be sent over the Internet as soon as it is received by your Internet Service Provider (ISP) router. The router scans the destination address assigned to each packet and determines where it should be sent.

Ultimately, the package reaches the customer and travels in the opposite direction from the lower physical layer of the OSI model to the upper application layer. During this process, the routing data – port number and IP address – are removed from the packet so that the data can be translated back into the alphabetical text and the transfer process can be completed.

Internet usage

In general, the Internet can be used to communicate over long or short distances, exchange information from anywhere in the world, and instantly access information or answers to almost any question.

Some specific examples of internet usage are:

E-mail and other forms of communication such as internet chat (IRC), Internet telephony, instant messaging, video conferencing, and social media;
Education and self-improvement through access to degree programs, training courses, and workshops
Job Search – Both the employer and the applicant use the Internet to post vacancies, apply for jobs, and hire people on social networking sites like LinkedIn.

Other examples are:

Online discussion groups and forums

  • Online dating
  • Online games
  • research
  • Read newspapers

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